Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM): Second generation flights are very low in most areas. By all indications this generation should produce much lower pressure than the 1st generation. Any insecticides which are applied now should target this generation. Growers who have trap counts that are less than 6 moths per trap can skip insecticides that are intended for OFM. If trap counts are higher, then time your sprays according to the following table:
|OFM 2nd Generation Timing|
|County/Region||Degree Days by 6/23
|Conventional 115-1200, 1450-1500||Intrepid/IGRs 1100-1150, 1400-1450|
|Gloucester-Southern||1439||1st – Past
2nd – 6/24-25
|1st – Past
2nd – 6/22-24
|Hunterdon-Northern||1241||1st – 6/19-21
2nd About 7/1-4
|1st – 6/19-21
Brown Rot and Anthracnose: Begin pre-harvest applications about 3 weeks prior to harvest. For the earliest fruit Captan alone should be sufficient. As the season progresses begin to phase in better chemistries. Research has shown that the best timings for pre-harvest sprays are 19, 9, and 1 day before harvest. A good rotation for brown rot resistance management might be, for example, Gem, Indar, and Fontellis. Indar has a supplemental label for use up to 12 ozs. Where anthracnose has been a problem use Pristine, Merivon, or azoxystrobin products instead of Gem, and start the pre-harvest program about 3-4 weeks out. Do not use azoxystrobin near apples or in the same sprayer used for apples.
Tufted Apple Budmoth (TABM): Timings for TABM control are updated below.
|County Area||AM – 4 Alt Mid Sprays||EM – 2 Complete Sprays||EM – 2 Complete Sprays||EM – 2 Complete Sprays|
|Southern||1st brood applications done||1st brood applications done||1st brood applications done||1st brood applications done|
|Northern||1st through 3rd treaments past,
Much of this first generation will overlap with codling moth in apple. Many of the same materials used for TABM control will also control codling moth. See apple section below.
San Jose Scale (SJS): Scale crawlers are entering the peak emergence period. It’s not too late to apply Esteem, Centaur or Movento. Remember that Movento needs at least a week to move into plant tissues. The neonicotinoids, Actara and Belay when used against BMSB should have good activity against scale crawlers.
European Red Mites (ERM): Mite activity has increased in a number of orchards, and is at treatment levels in some blocks. Since broad spectrum insecticides, especially pyrethroids will kill most mite predators, be aware that the continued use of these materials will likely contribute to increased ERM populations. Do not let mite populations go, since they will get out of hand, and BMSB will likely require continued treatments through the rest of the season.
San Jose Scale (SJS): See the peach section.
Codling Moth (CM): We are between generations for this insect, and no insecticides or other controls are needed on most farms. Pheromone trap captures are very low, with 2 exceptions in northern counties. If trap captures are above 5 males per trap then continued insecticide treatments are required.
Tufted Apple Budmoth (TABM): We are between broods in southern counties, and nearing the end of 1st brood treatments in northern counties. By next week we should have very little TABM activity.
Obliquebanded Leafroller (OBLR): Trap captures of adults are at similar levels as last week, but very few larvae are present. Lep/worm materials that have been applied for TABM and CM should keep OBLR populations low.
Grape Berry Moth (GBM): There is no change to the timing for grape berry moth since last week. We are still looking at the end of this week for GBM treatments in southern counties. We have had 771 DD as of 6/23.
The following is reprinted from last week: The Biofix was set for 5/26 in southern vineyards, and insecticides are due for control of the second brood at 810 degree days (DD), base 47 after biofix. With the current weather forecasts, we are predicted to reach the 810 DD spray target on 6/25 in the Hammonton/Vineland area (Skybit model), and 6/27 (NEWA model). The timing is meant to control newly emerging larvae before and during egg hatch. These timings are for the IGR (insect growth regulator) Intrepid and the diamides, Altacor or Belt. If using other insecticides like OP’s (Imidan), or Delegate, or the pyrethroids (Baythroid, Brigade, Danitol), then make the application 2-3 days later. This should not be an automatic application. If you had visible damage from the first brood during and shortly after bloom, or you find signs of fresh larval hatch on vineyard border rows, then a treatment is justified.
Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD): The first male SWD were captured in a trap in Atlantic county on Wednesday, June 17th. Since then, one other location in Atlantic county has had SWD males in the trap. Both of the locations with SWD are in close proximity to wild blackberry plants.
We are recommending that all growers start the 7-day insecticide program for SWD. Insecticides effective against SWD include: Asana, Adjourn, Brigade, Danitol, Exirel, Hero, Imidan, Lannate, Malathion and Delegate. Duke being exported to Canada SHOULD NOT receive any additional Imidan applications, since the MRL in Canada is less than in the U.S. If you are not exporting to Canada, then any pyrethroid will do, and Imidan is fair game. Delegate is a good choice for SWD, and should be in an alternating program during the last 2-3 weeks of the program. It actually has a higher MRL for Canada than we have in the U.S. It has a 3 day PHI and should be used at a rate of 5-6 oz/A with a maximum use of 19.5 oz/A/season. This means you get 3 applications 6-7 days apart, alternating with another chemistry. Malathion still has a 24C label for the high rate as used last year with a 1-day PHI. This means you can use the Malathion 8F at up to 2.5 pt/A or 2.5 lb ai/A. The high rate is what is needed for good SWD control.
In addition to trap monitoring for SWD adults, we are doing salt tests to monitor field picked berries from the packing line. Tests will begin this week and continue throughout the rest of harvest.
Blueberry Maggot (BBM): The first blueberry maggot adults were found in Atlantic County on Monday June 15th. Since then, BBM has been found in traps on 3 farms in Atlantic County out of 33 farms sampled. Currently, we have not had any BBM in traps in Burlington County.
All Growers exporting to Canada should have made their first BBM treatment by June 20th (5 days after the first BBM adult captured) and sprays must be applied throughout harvest every 7-10 days based on the label. Blueberry maggot adults are monitored for by yellow sticky cards placed on a metal pole that positions the trap right above the blueberry canopy. Since we have had the first SWD catch, insecticides used should be effective against BBM and SWD which include: Asana, Adjourn, Brigade, Danitol, Exirel, Hero, Imidan, Lannate, and Malathion. Delegate can be used for SWD control and when BBM populations are very light.
Aphids: About 70% of the sampled sites had aphids present over this past week. The percentage of sites with over 10% of shoots infested with aphids remained the same compared to last week at 41%. In addition, the average percent of shoots with aphids was similar to the previous week with 11.8% per 50 shoot sample. Growers with aphids present should not be using the neonicotinoids at this point because it is not good resistance management and they’re not effective against SWD. Instead, use Lannate where aphids are a problem, which has moderate control of aphids and good control of SWD.
Sharp-nosed Leafhopper (SNLH): We are still capturing SNLH on the yellow sticky cards in Atlantic and Burlington Counties (see trap counts table). Adults will continue to fly as they mature from the nymphs that are present near and in blueberry fields. Sharp-nosed leafhoppers have two generations in blueberries and transmit stunt disease to blueberry plants. Since the adults can fly and spread stunt disease, this is the stage that should be controlled. Most aphicides will also control leafhoppers, as will materials that target SWD.
Oriental Beetle (OB): Trap numbers have increased in both Atlantic County and Burlington County over the past week. The average trap count in Atlantic County was 1634.13 and 1798.78 in Burlington County. We will continue to monitor traps to identify peak OB activity.
Plum Curculio (PC): We are still finding scarring on fruit from PC adults laying eggs. At this time the percentage of fruit with scarring from egg laying is minimal, since most infested fruit has prematurely dropped off, and will not be harvested.
Leps. and other larvae: We have been noticing cranberry fruitworm (CBFW) larvae damage in a few fields in Atlantic County. Damaged fruit will blow out on the sorting line and growers should focus on pest management for aphids, BBM and SWD.
Putnam Scale: We continue to find Putnam scale on fruit in Atlantic County and Burlington County. Currently, 27.9% of the locations have had noticeable scale on the fruit. Crawlers have been active over the last two weeks. The scale is noticeable on fruit by discoloration and the small scale located on the fruit.
If you have visible scale on your berries you should target the crawler stage. Both Esteem or Diazinon are effective against scale crawlers. Diazinon can only be used once, but will also control BBM and SWD. Esteem can be used twice, and is a very good scale material, but only controls crawlers at this time of year. Both Esteem and Diazinon have a 7 day PHI, so this makes it almost impossible to use these materials on Duke, but you can still use them on Bluecrop, Draper and later varieties.
Diseases: We have been observing a couple of locations in Burlington and Atlantic Counties with minimal mummy berry present. No anthracnose has been observed in the field. We will begin collecting fruit in the next 7-10 days for incubation to assess effectiveness of disease management practices.
|Blueberry Trap Counts|
Tree Fruit Scouting Calendar Southern Counties
The following table is intended as an aid for orchard scouting. It should not be used to time pesticide applications. Median dates for pest events and crop phenology are displayed. These dates are compiled from observations made over the past 5-10 years in Gloucester County. Events in northern New Jersey should occur 7-10 days later.
|Pest Event or Growth Stage||Approximate Date||2015 Observed Date|
|1/4″ Green Tip Red Delicious||March 31 +/- 13 Days||April 14|
|Tight Cluster Red Delicious||April 9 +/- 13 Days||April 19|
|Pink Peach (Redhaven)||April 4 +/- 15 Days||April 19|
|Pink Apple (Red Delicious)||April 14 +/- 12 Days||April 22|
|Full Bloom Peach (Redhaven)||April 9 +/- 14 Days||April 27|
|Full Bloom Apple (Red Delicious)||April 22 +/- 11 Days||April 30|
|Petal Fall (Redhaven)||April 22 +/- 10 Days||May 4|
|Petal Fall (Red Delicious)||April 27 +/- 14 Days||May 6|
|Shuck Split (Redhaven)||April 30 +/- 11 Days||May 11|
|Tufted Apple Bud Moth Biofix||May 4 +/- 10 Days||May 11|
|Codling Moth Biofix||April 27 +/- 13 Days||May 5|
|Pear Psylla-2nd generation nymph hatch||May 25 +/- 8 Days||May 27|
|SJS Crawlers-first generation||June 2 +/- 8 Days||June 8|
|Pit Hardening – Peach||June 15 +/- 9 Days||June 13|
Tree Fruit Trap Counts – Southern Counties
Tree Fruit Trap Counts – Northern Counties
Page coded by Aaron Rabin