This week in Fruit IPM
- Scouting Calendar
- Trap Counts
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Bacterial Spot: Symptoms are now appearing on leaves from an infection that occurred about two weeks ago. So far very little infected orchards have been noted in southern counties. Growers should maintain aggressive coverage around rains. Friday’s weather was very conducive for infection. Additional leaf symptoms should appear by the weekend and fruit symptoms should appear in about 3 weeks.
Tufted Apple Budmoth (TABM): Timings for TABM control are outlined below. This is now a minor pest, due to its increased control over the last 6-7 years. However, if you are a grower who did have TABM damage last year, you are advised to use the timings that follow:
|Conventional, Diamides||Conventional, Diamides||Intrepid, Rimon||Bt|
|Southern||1st about 6/4-6;
|1st about 6/4-6;
|1st about 6/4-6;
|1st about 6/4-6;
|Northern||Too early to predict||Too early to predict||Too early to predict||Too early to predict|
Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM): We are in between generations in southern counties, and at the timing for the second of 2 treatments in northern counties. In southern counties it is a good time to start scouting orchards for signs of shoot flagging. Infested shoots will look wilted and will bleed from the entry point (see photo). Growers with trap captures above 6/trap should maintain coverage with effective materials. Some growers in northern counties have close to 150 moths per trap. This is a Very High Population, and justifies checking your coverage, timing and the types of materials you are using.
|First Generation OFM Timing Dates|
by 5/20 base 45
|Gloucester – Southern||478||1st – Past
2nd – Past
|Not Recommended||1st – Past
2nd – Past
|Hunterdon – Northern||307||1st – Past
2nd – 5/23-24
|Not Recommended||1st – Past
2nd – 5/20-21
Green Peach Aphid: Some individual farms have populations above treatment thresholds. Any registered neonicotinoid insecticide (Actara, Assail, Belay, Admire Pro (IRAC 4A) or Closer (IRAC 4C), or premixes – Leverage, Voliam-Flexi) will control these populations. Admire Pro will control aphids only. Beleaf (IRAC 9C) will also target aphids and control tarnished plant bug. Movento (IRAC 23) will control aphids and scale insects.
Rusty Spot: Early symptoms should be visible soon. Maintain control measures until about pit hardening. This is another area where having flowering weeds in your ground cover is a bad thing. Rally is used to control rusty spot, but if combined with a neonicotinoid insecticide for aphids or scale, you have a toxic combination for bees. If you have a weedy ground cover and use a neonic, then consider using one of the biorationals (Armicarb; Kaligreen; Serenade) in place of Rally to minimize impact on bees.
Peach Scab: It’s too early to see peach scab symptoms but it’s important to maintain control measures until about the middle of July, especially where scab was present last year.
Plum Curculio (PC): We are entering the peak of PC activity in all areas of the state. Moderate levels of injury were seen in both stone and pome fruit over the past week, even where effective insecticides were applied. In northern counties high adult activity was observed. Up to 8 adults were collected by beating trays in 10 tree samples. If insecticide applications were followed by significant rains, then re-cover with effective materials after an inch or more of precipitation.
Codling Moth (CM): The following chart updates application timings for southern northern counties. Overall, trap counts are low, but a few sites still show high populations as indicated by trap captures. Up to 20-49 moths per trap are being seen on some farms, particularly in the northwestern part of the state. When we remember that 5 moths per trap is considered a treatment threshold (after timed sprays), then these farms have very high populations. Traps are important if for no other reason, than to give you an indication of relative insect pressure BEFORE damage occurs. If you have treated and still have these types of numbers, then check your coverage and timing, and/or change to another type of chemistry. Under high insect pressure, we have had good results with alternative controls like repeated use of granulosis virus (Carpovirusine) combined with mating disruption. At minimum, if growers are using OP’s then switch to a diamide (Altacor/Belt or premixes), or Delegate.
|Codling Moth Degree Day Timing|
|Application and Insecticide Type|
75-100DD + 14-17 days later
150 + 450 DD
Altacor, Voliam mixes: (150-200 DD) + 14-21 days later
250 DD + every 7-9 days
during brood hatch (later if first spray is an IGR
Delegate, Avaunt, OP’s, carbamates, pyrethroids
250 DD + 550 DD
Tufted Apple Budmoth (TABM): See peach section.
Apple Scab and Powdery Mildew: Scab symptoms are present in a few blocks in southern and northern counties. By the NEWA model, primary scab season should be almost finished.
Pear Psylla: First generation adults are just beginning to appear on shoots and egg laying has begun in all counties. Eggs have also started to hatch in some locations. If you are planning to apply Movento, carefully monitor for eggs along the midribs of leaves near the tops of shoots. Bias sampling toward the tops of trees. Ideally, make the application before the most eggs hatch (see scouting calendar) since Movento needs about a week to become fully systemic. Other options for control include Agri-mek, Assail, Actara, and Delegate. Portal and Nexter are also effective but are better saved for summer treatments if needed. Follow the Agri-mek label instructions for adding adjuvants. The efficacy of Assail, Actara and Delegate can be improved by the addition of 1 qt. summer spray oil. Be careful when applying oil to Asian varieties.
Plum Curculio (PC): Very little PC were found in beating tray samples last week in our sampling. Out of 16 farm sites, one site had adult PC activity of 3 active adults per bush. We are in the peak period of PC activity in tree fruit, so additional activity in blueberries is expected to follow. PC should be one of the main insect targets when growers remove bees late this week and early next week.
Aphids: Very few aphids were seen this past week. About 18% of samples showed some aphids, but in very small colonies.
Putnam Scale: No activity has been noted as of 5/20.
Leafrollers and Other Leps: We are still seeing low levels of worms in beating trays samples, but only in about 5% of sample sites.
Cranberry Weevil (CBW): Adult activity has stopped for the most part. We did see a few adults in beating tray samples over the last week.
Cranberry Fruitworm (CBFW): Traps have been set, and the first trap captures have been seen, but only at 1 moth per trap at 1 site. There will be more about the timing and treatment for this pest over the next couple of weeks.
Thrips: Some thrips were seen again over the past week, but inly in 11% of our samples. In those sites that did have thrips, populations were very light, with only 2 thrips per 100 blossom clusters. This fits the degree day model, which is showing that even 10% emergence is not expected over the next 6 days. Since this will be past the pollination period, thrips should not be a problem this year.
The following table is intended as an aid for orchard scouting. It should not be used to time pesticide applications. Median dates for pest events and crop phenology are displayed. These dates are compiled from observations made since 1995 in Gloucester County. Events in northern New Jersey should occur 7-10 days later.
|Pest Event or Growth Stage||Approximate Date||2014 Observed Date|
|1/4″ Green Tip Red Delicious||March 27 +/- 10 Days||April 11|
|Tight Cluster Red Delicious||April 8 +/- 10 Days||April 17|
|Oriental Fruit Moth Biofix||April 8 +/- 10 Days||April 14|
|Pink Peach (Redhaven)||April 10 +/- 9 Days||April 13|
|Pink Apple (Red Delicious)||April 13 +/- 11 Days||April 24|
|Full Bloom Peach (Redhaven)||April 16 +/- 7 Days||April 21|
|Green Peach Aphid Observed||April 16 +/- 16 Days||May 1|
|Full Bloom Apple (Red Delicious)||April 20 +/- 9 Days||May 3|
|Petal Fall (Redhaven)||April 21 +/- 9 Days||May 2|
|Petal Fall (Red Delicious)||April 27 +/- 13 Days||May 11|
|Shuck Split (Redhaven)||April 29 +/- 7 Days||May 11|
|Tufted Apple Bud Moth Biofix||May 4 +/- 10 Days||May 11|
|2nd Generation Pear Psylla Hatch||May 29 +/-3 Days||Not yet observed|
Trap Counts – Southern Counties
Trap Counts – Northern Counties