- Scouting Calendar
- Trap Counts
Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM): For those growers using the diamide insecticides (Altacor, Belt, Voliam mixes, and Tourismo), the timing for the second application in southern counties is now, and by the first part of next week in northern counties. Insecticides are required according to the following degree day timings. These timings should be used for most farms. If you have high insect pressure, then additional sprays may be needed. Pheromone trap counts indicate higher than normal insect pressure on some farms, particularly in northern counties, where counts were as high as 129 males per trap in peaches and 139 males per trap in apples. If you make 2 well timed full (every middle) sprays, then problems should be minimized. If your trap counts exceed 6-8 males per trap 7 to 10 days after the second spray, then additional controls may be required.
|County-Region||1st Spray Date||Intrepid / IGRs||2nd Spray Date|
|Gloucester – Southern||1st – Past; 2nd – 5/16-17||Not Rec.||1st – Past; 2nd – 5/12-13|
|Hunterdon – Northern||1st – 5/10-11′; 2nd – 5/20-22||Not Rec.||1st – Past; 2nd – 5/19-20|
Mating Disruption: As the first flight winds down, some growers may be planning on using mating disruption for 2nd through 4thgeneration OFM control. You should have your sprayable material in stock, or be getting ready to place dispensers in the orchard soon. Dispenser placement can be done anytime now through the next week in southern counties.
Tufted Apple Budmoth (TABM): A biofix for TABM was set for southern counties on May 11. This insect has really fallen off as a primary pest in recent years, and is now more of a ‘minor’ status. We will have more on treatments next week.
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB): BMSB are starting to become active, but many are still in their overwintering sites. Emergence should begin sometime in late May.
Plum Curculio (PC): Adults are active, with fresh injury found today in southern counties. This is an edge related pest that normally disperses from alternate hosts in the surrounding woods and hedgerows. If you see injury, think about border treatments, treating the edge crop trees (not the woods), rather than applying extra broadcast sprays to the entire orchard. If pyrethroids (Ambush/Pounce/Perm-up, Asana, Baythroid, Danitol, Mustang, Warrior) are used for PC, they should be used at the high rates. Pyrethroid effectiveness decreases at temperatures above 80-850F, so if using these materials try to use them during cooler weather or in combination with another active ingredient. A number of pre-mixes are on the market. See the production guide for efficacy ratings.
A Note on Pre-Mixes: At this time of the season your primary pests are PC, OFM, Tarnished Plant Bug and Native Stink Bugs, and some BMSB as they start to move into the orchard. Avaunt is one of the best materials for PC and covers OFM, but is weak on tarnished plant bugs and stink bugs. The pyrethroids do work on tarnished plant bug and stink bugs. Some neonicotinoids also work well on PC and stink bugs (Actara and Belay). One combination material we recently discussed with a grower was Endigo®. This, like other pre-mixes is not a simple 1:1 addition of 2 other insecticides. Let’s look at the active ingredients (ai) and amounts in each product. This is just one example of what you might need to consider when using these products. Endigo is a combination of Lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior or Warrior II), and Thiamethoxam (Actara). It has 9.8% ai lambda-Cy and 12.6% thiamethoxam with a maximum use rate in peaches of 6 oz/A. This is equivalent to .885 oz thiamethoxam and .66 oz lambda-cy. A full rate of Warrior II gives you .66 oz ai, and Warrior – .64 oz ai. or the same amount as the high rate of Endigo. But, a high rate of Actara alone (5.5 oz/A) is equal to 1.375 oz ai thiamethoxam per acre, while the Endigo only gives you 2/3 of that. If using Endigo, to get the full rate of each ai, you would need to add another 1/3 rate of Actara. Maximum amounts allowed per acre per season are calculated based on the amount of ai used. For Endigo you are allowed 3 applications in peach or 19 oz (.172 lb ai of any thiamethoxam material and .2 lb ai of any lambda-cyhalothrin material); and the equivalent of 4.7 applications in apples or 28 oz (.258 lb ai of any thiamethoxam material and .2 lb ai of any lambda-cyhalothrin material). This discussion does not include costs, but since you are trying to control multiple pests at this time, it is worth a thought.
Codling Moth (CM): The following chart updates application timings for southern and northern counties. Growers should try to time sprays the best way possible and not cut insecticide rates. Growers who had injury in previous seasons and used OP insecticides should use alternative chemistries. Growers with high populations should be transitioning away from the older materials to Delegate, diamides, IGR’s or mating disruption combined with alternative materials. The 2nd complete spray timing for CM generally coincides with timings for TABM. Materials used for TABM should also be very effective for CM.
Codling Moth Degree Day Timing
|County-Region||Application and Insecticide Type|
|Rimon:75-100 DD + 14-17 days later||Intrepid:150 + 450 DD
Diamides – Altacor,
Voliam mixes: (150-200 DD) + 14-21 days later
|Cyd-X, Carpovirusine 250 DD + every 7-9 days during brood hatch (later if first spray is an IGR)||Standard Insecticides, Diamides – Belt, Tourismo 250 DD + 550 DD|
|Gloucester – Southern||Past||5/15||5/18||About 6/4-6/7||5/23||5/23||Too Far Off|
|Hunterdon – Northern||5/12||5/16||5/20||About 6/10-11||About 5/24-26||About 5/24-26||Too Far Off|
Tufted Apple Budmoth (TABM): See peach section.
Plum Curculio (PC): Plum curculio is a key pest during the petal fall and first cover sprays. Please see the peach section for a more complete discussion.
Aphids (Spirea and Apple Aphids, and Rosy Apple Aphids): Rosy aphid colonies have been found above thresholds in some southern and northern county orchards. This is largely due to difficulty in timing delayed dormant applications. Use a conservative average of 1 colony/tree for a rosy aphid treatment level. Beneficials are present in many blocks. Unfurl curled leaves to see if aphids are either parasitized or have syrphid larvae feeding on them. Parasitized aphids appear brown and swollen and may have exit holes in the abdomen. If predators are present, and All Colonies are either parasitized or have predators present, then treatments may not be needed; otherwise treat with a neonicotinoid insecticide in enough volume to thoroughly wet the entire tree. If in northern counties, the protective insecticides have not yet been applied, then they will be due at petal fall. Try Not To Mix neonicotinoid insecticides and DMI fungicides (Rally, Indar, etc.) together at petal fall, especially if flowering weeds are present in the orchard. This mixture can be very toxic to bees.
Closer Labeled for Pome and Stone Fruit Use: Dow AgroSciences just received the label for Closer™ (sulfoxaflor) in various crops including apples and peaches. This is a “neonicotinoid like” material, but not the same chemistry. Closer is an IRAC group 4C material, while the neonicotinoids are group 4A materials. Closer is for insects that have piercing sucking mouthparts, primarily aphids and plant bugs, but not BMSB. Closer is also toxic to bees, and therefore should not be used when bees are present or if there are flowering weeds in the orchard. This material is a good alternative to true neonicotinoids for aphid control, since alternating this chemistry with neonics provides some resistance management for those products. In pome fruits it is for control of aphids, white apple leafhoppers, plant bugs and wooly apple aphids, and suppresses pear psylla (pear) and San Jose scale. In peaches it is for control of aphids only, while it can suppress San Jose scale and western flower thrips. Depending on the pest, the use rate is 1.5 to 5.75 oz/A.
Apple Scab and Other Diseases: The rains over the past week are bringing multiple scab infection periods. A few of the recent showers have been at night. It should be noted that nightime rains generally release a only small percentage of mature ascospores, so while a large percentage of overwintering ascospores have already matured and been released, inoculum for primary scab infections still exists. This is especially of concern in orchards that had scab last year. According to the NEWA models, 100% of the overwintering ascospores are mature in southern counties, but about 92% are mature in Hunterdon County.
Scouting Calendar Southern Counties Tree Fruit
The following table is intended as an aid for orchard scouting. It should not be used to time pesticide applications. Median dates for pest events and crop phenology are displayed. These dates are compiled from observations made since 1995 in Gloucester County. Events in northern New Jersey should occur 7-10 days later.
|Pest Event or Growth Stage||Approximate Date||2013 Observed Date|
|1/4″ Green Tip Red Delicious||March 27 +/- 10 Days||March 29|
|Oriental Fruit Moth Biofix||April 8 +/- 10 Days||April 16|
|Full Bloom Peach (Redhaven)||April 16 +/- 7 Days||April 11|
|Oriental Fruit Moth – 170 DD target||April 19 +/- 12 Days||May 2|
|Full Bloom Apple (Red Delicious)||April 20 +/- 9 Days||May 1|
|Petal Fall (Red Delicious)||April 27 +/- 13 Days||May 9|
|Shuck Split (Redhaven)||April 29 +/- 7 Days||May 8|
|Tufted Apple Bud Moth Biofix||May 4 +/- 10 Days||May 13|
|Plum Curculio Oviposition Begins||May 5 +/- 16 Days||May 6|
|Oriental Fruit Moth – 375 DD target||May 10 +/- 10 Days||Not yet observed|
|Codling Moth Biofix||May 14 +/- 16 Days||May 5|
|White Peach Scale Crawler Emergence||May 29 +/- 7 days||Not yet observed|
|San Jose Scale Crawler Emergence (1st Gen.)||June 6 +/- 4 days||Not yet observed|
Aphids: About 32% of shoot samples are positive for aphid infestation. As was the case last week, these are single aphids. They have not started to multiply into colonies. At this early stage searches should be done on the lowest shoot terminals. This is also where worm larvae are more likely to show up.
Plum Curculio (PC): About 7% of beating tray samples have been positive for PC adults. This is an increase since last week. As soon as pollination is complete, growers should have bees removed and treatments should be applied. PC should not be ignored since it can result in larval infested fruit. All farm locations have at least low levels of this critical pest.
Leps. and Leafroller Larvae: No larvae have been seen in beating tray samples. However, 12% of shoot samples have been positive. None of these have been over the 5% shoots infested treatment level. The first generation Redbanded leafroller adult flight is now just beyond the peak in Atlantic Co. This pest is rarely a problem in most areas. If you have concerns, then look for small green larvae that may be visible in the tips of rolled up leaves in the lower developing shoots. You DO NOT NEED TO TREAT unless young larvae are present.
Thrips: Thrips have recently been seen in sticky traps at low numbers, however sampling of flowers has only shown 1 insect across many farms. Thrips are not a target unless present in significant numbers in the flowers. In previous seasons we have seen very high trap levels without any significant flower infestation.
Tree Fruit Trap Counts – Southern Counties
Tree Fruit Trap Counts – Northern Counties
Blueberry Insect Trap Counts – Atlantic County
Blueberry Insect Trap Counts – Burlington County