Oriental Fruit Moth: An OFM biofix was set for April 3 in southern counties. Treatments for the first flight will be due at 170-200 degree days after the first trap captures or “biofix.” According to the NEWA weather station in Upper Deerfield, we reached 170 DD on 4/22. Therefore the first applications for OFM should be applied between 4/22 – 4/25. The second application is due about 5/6-8. In northern counties, as represented at the Snyder Farm location the first application will be due about 5/2 and the second application between 5/10-12. Oriental fruit moth has 4 generations per year in NJ. The highest population of adult moths usually present in the season produces this first brood. Therefore this is the most important generation to treat. This is particularly true if you have peach blocks with little to no crop, and you want a minimal program for those blocks. If you don’t treat for any other insects in those blocks, treat for this first generation. This will protect the trees from much of the early terminal flagging that will occur if left untreated.
Plum Curculio (PC): PC adults usually begin egg laying once the fruit is out of the shuck. Preferred materials that offer PC control now are Avaunt, and Imidan. If using high rates of a neonicotinoid (i.e. Actara, Belay, Assail), be aware that there is a synergistic effect when used in tank mixes with DMI materials (i.e. Rally) with regard to bee toxicity. Neonicotinoids should not be used if there are any flowering weeds in your orchard. Those flowering weeds will attract bees, which will be killed by the insecticide. The use of most of these products when bees are present is off label and therefore not legal. If pyrethroids are being used, then high rates are advisable, since low rates often do not control PC, especially in hot weather. Where PC is a problem, growers should rotate away from pyrethroid insecticides if possible. Actara and Belay will also control PC (and GPA), but not OFM.
Green Peach Aphids (GPA): Green Peach Aphid: GPA colonies are forming now, and have been found at very low levels in southern counties. If you have completed the first application for OFM, and aphids are at treatment level, and your ground cover is clean of blooming weeds, a good choice that will cover catfacing insects, aphids, and plum curculio is Thiamethoxam (Actara and in VoliamFlexi). Examine trees for the presence of colonies by standing back and looking at the entire tree. Clusters of curled leaves will define a single colony. Count the number of colonies on ten trees and use a treatment threshold of 2 colonies/tree at petal fall to shuck split for peach, and 1 colony/tree for nectarine. If treating aphids alone then Movento @ 6 oz/A is a good non-neonicotinoid choice. Movento must be combined with a spreader/penetrant spray adjuvant. Used later during late May to early June this will also control scale. Lannate can also be used, but is not quite as effective.
Tarnished Plant Bugs and Other Catfacing Insects: This is the other key insect complex at this time of year. Tarnished plant bugs will become more of an issue as temperatures warm and mowing and other ground cover activities become more common. General spray timing at this time of year should still be targeted for Oriental Fruit Moth and/or Plum Curculio (PC). Most materials, except the diamides (Altacor, Belt, Tourismo) used for these pests will have some efficacy for plant bugs.
Bacterial Spot: Copper formulations should be used starting now to suppress bacterial spot. Generally we recommend starting at 0.5 ozs metallic copper and gradually lowering the rate as the season progresses. The rate applied will depend on the formulation. Dr. Lalancette published a chart listing common copper formulations and rates for peach and nectarine applications. Avoid combining copper with captan especially if it has been overcast for several days. Also avoid acidic spray solutions when applying copper.
Peach Scab: In addition to Rusty Spot and Bacterial Spot, peach scab requires protective applications at this time. Topsin, Topsin/Captan combinations, Gem, Inspire Super, and especially Quadris Top are the best materials for blocks that had scab last year. Both Gem and Topsin should be used at the high rate to deactivate overwintering lesions on the wood. Quadris Top contains azoxystrobin (Abound), which is phytotoxic to many apple varieties. Phytotoxic residues can remain in the tank for long periods after an application is made, even if a tank cleaner is used. Do Not use Quadris Top or Abound in the same sprayer used for apples.
Rusty Spot: An effective material should be included at petal fall, and continue through 2nd cover on rusty spot sensitive varieties. Rally at 2.5 – 5 oz./acre is the standard and most effective product. Other effective materials include Gem, Inspire Super, and Quadris Top. Both Gem and Quadris top will control all diseases at petal fall.
Codling Moth (CM): The first codling moth flight has started. The first adults were caught on April 22 in southern counties, and April 26 in Hunterdon County.
|Codling Moth Degree Day Timing|
|Application and Insecticide Type|
|County Area||Biofix||Rimon: 75-100DD
+ 14-17 days later
|Intrepid 150 + 450 DD
Diamides – Altacor, Voliam mixes: (150-200 DD) + 14-21 days later
Carpovirusine 250 DD + every 7-9 days during brood hatch (later if first spray is an IGR)
|Standard Insecticides – Delegate, Avaunt, OP’s, carbamates, pyrethroids
250 DD + 550 DD
|Southern||April 22||4/28||~5/5||~5/8-9||Too far off||~5/15-20||~5/15-20||Too far off|
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer (STLM): Adults are flying, but are not considered a pest target at this time. This is one of the most highly parasitized insects in the orchard. We have not seen a real problem with this insect in recent years. However last summer we observed an increase in trap counts and injury in a few orchards in southern counties.
European Apple Sawfly (EAS): This insect is active and will be active through bloom and into petal fall and first cover. Adult females lay eggs just under the skin of freshly set fruit, and the young larvae mine just under the skin. Where this insect is active, it is a primary target at petal fall. In orchards of mixed variety plantings, the petal fall spray for the entire planting is prolonged. This enables EAS to start damaging the first varieties where petals fell earlier before a petal fall spray could be applied to the entire block.
Diseases: Apple Scab, Powdery Mildew, Cedar Apple Rust, are diseases of concern at this time. The NEWA scab models are predicting about 98-99% ascospore maturity during this period in southern NJ and about 93-94% maturity in Hunterdon County. Infection periods are active on 4/27 and 29 in southern counties and on 4/29 in northern counties. All trees should be covered for these infection periods. Primary apple scab spores are released during any substantial wetting and infection period. Cedar apple rust infections can occur anytime between pink and 3rd cover.
Fire Blight: The first blossoms opened in southern counties on April 15. For shoot blight suppression start applications of low rates of apogee during bloom. In southern counties the window for the first applications of apogee is rapidly closing. From a calendar perspective, blossom sprays using Streptomycin should be applied on a 3-7 day schedule or anytime temperatures are 65°F or above and the relative humidity is 60% or above when the bloom is open. Mycoshield now has a supplemental label allowing use on apples and pears. Rotations of Streptomycin and Oxytetracyclene will help manage resistance. The entire week through 4/28 is listed as a high fire blight infection period in southern counties, with low to moderate infection periods in northern counties.
Pear Psylla: Pear Psylla nymphs began hatching last week in southern counties and are hatching this week in northern counties. Nymphs will feed on developing clusters through bloom. We are at petal fall in pears in southern counties. Examine fruit clusters for nymphs or eggs before deciding if control is needed. If the nymphs are too far along in their development, they will be difficult to control and it may be necessary to wait for the next generation to get the proper timing. Applications of Agri-mek have given the best early season control in recent years. Follow the label instructions.
Limited scouting in blueberry fields over the last week has shown continued activity by cranberry weevil, Lep (immatures from various moths and leafrollers) presence, and plum curculio activity. These numbers are summarized below:
|Scouting Results for the Last 7 Days 4-26-2016|
per 100 clusters
While cranberry weevil is still present, activity should decrease over the next week to 10 days. In some cases leafroller larvae are present above treatment levels. Most of these spots are on field edges near woods. When larvae are present above 1 per 100 blossom/fruit clusters, then a treatment is justified. During this time of bee activity, and when larvae are small, any Bt (Dipel, etc.) formulation will work.
Scouting Calendar Tree Fruit Southern Counties
The following table is intended as an aid for orchard scouting. It should not be used to time pesticide applications. Median dates for pest events and crop phenology are displayed. These dates are compiled from observations made since 1995 in Gloucester County. Events in northern New Jersey should occur 7-10 days later.
|Pest Event or Growth Stage||Approximate Date||2016 Observed Date|
|Bud Swell (Redhaven)||March 23 +/- 15 Days||March 21|
|1/4″ Green Tip Red Delicious||March 31 +/- 13 Days||March 22|
|Pink Peach (Redhaven)||April 4 +/- 15 Days||March 28|
|Tight Cluster Red Delicious||April 9 +/- 13 Days||April 3|
|Oriental Fruit Moth Biofix||April 9 +/- 13 Days||April 3|
|Full Bloom Peach (Redhaven)||April 9 +/- 14 Days||April 5|
|Pink Apple (Red Delicious)||April 14 +/- 12 Days||April 8|
|Codling Moth Biofix||April 27 +/- 13 Days||April 22|
|Green Peach Aphid Observed||April 16 +/- 16 Days||April 25|
|Full Bloom Apple (Red Delicious)||April 22 +/- 11 Days||April 20|
|Petal Fall (Redhaven)||April 22 +/- 10 Days||Not yet observed|
|Petal Fall (Red Delicious)||April 27 +/- 14 Days||Not yet observed|
|Shuck Split (Redhaven)||April 30+/- 11 Days||Not yet observed|
|First PC Oviposition Scars Observed||May 3 +/- 18 Days||Not yet observed|
|Tufted Apple Bud Moth Biofix||May 4 +/- 10 Days||Not yet observed|
Tree Fruit Trap Counts – Southern Counties