- Scouting Calendar
Brown Rot: Blossom infections from the brown rot fungus can occur whenever pistils are exposed and a favorable climate exists. Infections can occur during any wetting period when temperatures are between 41 and 86 ° F. However optimum conditions for infection occur with wetting and temperatures in the mid 70’s. During long wetting periods (several days or more) blossoms can be infected regardless of temperature. Generally infections that occur when conditions are sub optimal are less severe. Blossoms and fruitlets will remain susceptible until the pistil dessicates (sometime between petal fall and shuck split).
Oriental Fruit Moth: A biofix point for OFM has not been set in commercial orchards in the southern region as of yet. The first insecticides for first generation Oriental Fruit Moth control should be applied at 150-175 degree days after biofix. This timing generally coincides with petal fall in peaches. The first captures usually occur in early April so a biofix is not far off.
Green Peach Aphid: GPA colonies begin forming sometime during bloom. Examine trees for the presence of colonies from pink to shuck split. Count the number of colonies on ten trees and use a treatment threshold of 2 colonies/tree at petal fall for peach, and 1 colony/tree for nectarine. The best way to scout for aphids during bloom is with a beating tray. See the 2013 NJ Commercial Tree Fruit Production Guide for recommended materials and rates.
Pear Psylla: If using Esteem or Centaur for psylla control, make one application delayed dormant through popcorn, or two applications delayed dormant through petal fall. In lieu of oil, Surround may also be applied starting at swollen bud. We are at that stage now but additional applications made at green cluster and petal fall will help suppress egg laying. If using oil, apply a second application combined with a pyrethroid at green cluster.
Pear Diseases: Include effective materials such as Ziram and EBDC formulations for Pear Scab beginning at the cluster bud stage. See the NJ Commercial Tree Fruit Production Guide for materials and rates.
Apple Scab: Orchards that had scab last year should start a scab control program using very effective materials at ½” green. Orchards that were clean last fall can begin using very effective materials at tight cluster. Scab, powdery mildew, and cedar apple rust are diseases of concern starting at tight cluster. Powdery mildew is more prevalent in years with dry weather and high humidity. Cedar apple rust infections can occur anytime between pink and 3rd cover and favor warm rains. Over the years Rally (DMI) has been the standard scab, mildew and rust material, especially when combined with an EBDC such as Manzate. In recent years, Scab and mildew resistance to DMI fungicides has been noted in the Hudson Valley and other regions. Inspire Super MP (difenoconazole packaged with cyprodinil (Vangard)) and Indar are second generation DMI’s that are highly effective for scab; rust; and mildew control, but should not be used where resistance is suspected. Manage resistance by rotating DMI materials with different chemistries (See the Rosenberger and Cox article on scab control).
New products available include Fontellis (SDHI); Luna Sensation; Luna Tranquility; and Merivon. Luna Sensation, Luna Tranquility, and Merivon are premixes of SDHI chemistries with either a QoI, or an AP that provide broad spectrum disease control during primary scab season. See the NJ Commercial Tree Fruit Production Guide for more information. Remember: Do not use Captan with oil or within 7 to 10 days of an oil application. Do not apply Merivon with EC formulations or crop oils.
Rosy Apple Aphid: Lorsban or Supracide should be applied no later than ¼” green. Esteem and Centaur should be applied for scale and rosy apple aphid control no later than ½”green. Vydate @ 2.5-3 pt/A, Assail, Actara, and Calypso may be applied up to prepink. If a pre-bloom application cannot be made monitor for colonies during bloom and use a treatment threshold of 1 colony/tree at petal fall. Systemic materials such as Vydate or neonicitinoids are best used at this timing, but remember Vydate will cause thinning.
European Red Mite; San Jose Scale: Oil applications for mite suppression and scale control should start at ½” green. Apply 4-6 gals oil/acre at ½”green to tight cluster; 2-3 gals/acre at tight cluster to pink. An additional oil application at 1-1.5 gals /ac may be made at pink.
The following table is intended as an aid for orchard scouting. It should not be used to time pesticide applications. Median dates for pest events and crop phenology are displayed. These dates are compiled from observations made over the past 5-10 years in Gloucester County. Events in northern New Jersey should occur 7-10 days later.
Pest Event or Growth Stage
|Approximate Date||2013 Observed Date|
|Bud Swell (Redhaven)||March 22 +/- 14 Days||March 29|
|1/4″ Green Tip Red Delicious||March 27 +/- 10 Days||April 8|
|First Apple Scab Infection Period||April 5 +/- 18 Days||Not yet observed|
|Pink Peach (Redhaven)||April 10 +/- 9 Days||April 9|
|Tight Cluster Red Delicious||April 8 +/- 10 Days||Not yet observed|
|Oriental Fruit Moth Biofix||April 8 +/- 10 Days||Not yet observed|
|First Blossom Blight Infection||April 10 +/- 5 days||Not yet observed|
|Full Bloom Peach (Redhaven)||April 16 +/- 7 days||Not yet observed|